The transitional nature of the biota has resulted in the presence of many mammals from Asia and several reptiles and birds from the Australasian bio-region. Compared with the rich marine life the terrestrial fauna is small. The Park is best known for the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis (VU), the world’s largest lizard, which can grow to 3m long. The population on Komodo island, was estimated in 2001 by a team from the Zoological Society of San Diego, at 2259 individuals. An earlier estimate of about 5.700 was said to be distributed over the islands of Komodo (2,900), Rinca (900), Gili Motong (<100) and in coastal regions of western and northern Flores.The species was last seen on Padar in 1975 (Kvalvagnaes & Halim,1979). Its favoured habitat is tropical deciduous forest, and, to a lesser extent, open savannah. It is carnivorous, eating occasional large meals when it eats all of its prey, and is well adapted to living without water (Auffenburg, 1981). The rest of the herpetofauna is rich, with 12 land snakes including the common cobra Naja naja sputatrix in disturbed land, Russel’s pit viper Vipera russelli and green tree viper Trimeresurus albolabris, 9 species of skink Scincidae, geckoes Gekkonidae, limbless lizards Dibamidae and monitor lizards. There are several amphibian species in the cloud forest: Sphenomorphus schlegeli, S. striolatus and the frog Oreophryne jeffersoniana. Savannah species include Emoia similis, and Asian bullfrog Kaloula baleata. Tropical deciduous forest supports reptiles such as Sphenomorphus florensis, Trimeresurus albolabris, Dendrelaphis pictus and Lycodon aulicus. (Auffenburg, 1980). Continue reading
The location just to the east of Wallace’s line gives the islands a transitional biota between the Oriental and Australasian regions. The predominant vegetation, covering some 70% of the Park, is dry open grass-woodland savannah, mainly of anthropogenic origin, Most of its species are xerophytic with water-retaining adaptions and many are fire-adapted. There are also patches of tropical rainforest, deciduous monsoon forest and mangrove. The dominant savannah tree is lontar palm Borassus flabellifer, which occurs individually or in scattered stands. Grasses include Eulalia leschenaultiana, Setaria adhaerens, Chloris barbata, Heteropogon contortus and, in the higher areas,Themeda spp. including T. frondosa and T. triandra. Tropical deciduous monsoon forest occurs along the bases of hills and on valley bottoms, characterised by trees such as Sterculia foedita, Oroxylum indicum, Tamarindus indica, Zizyphus horsfeldi, Schleichera oleosa, Cassia javanica, Murraya paniculata, Diospyros javanica, Harrisonia brownii and Piliostigma malabaricum. The forest lacks the predominance of Australian-derived trees and flora found further to the east on Timor (Sumardja, 1981). Continue reading
The Park lies within one of the driest regions of Indonesia with an annual rainfall of between 800m and 1000mm. The heaviest rainfall, highest humidity, strongest winds (from the west) and lowest temperatures are recorded during the monsoon between November and March. This pattern is reversed during the long dry season from April to October, when mean daily temperatures can reach 40°C and dry winds come from the southeast. The average temperature range is between 17°C to 34°C (PHKA, 2004).
Komodo is one of the long arc of islands running from Sumatra towards Irian Jaya along the line of a tectonic subduction between the Sunda and Sahul shelfs. It is the largest (34,000 ha) of a small archipelago between the larger islands of Sambawa and Flores. The topography is generally steep and rugged owing to its volcanic origin and is dominated by a range of rounded north-south oriented hills between 500-600m high. Relief is steepest to the north-east, notably in the peak of Gunung (Mount) Toda Klea which is precipitous and crowned by deep, rocky dry gullies. The coastline is irregular with little flat ground, numerous bays, beaches and inlets separated by headlands, often with sheer cliffs falling vertically into the sea. To the east, across the Lantah Strait, Padar is a small, narrow island which rises steeply from surrounding plains to 200-300m. Further east, the second largest island in the Park, Rinca (20,000 ha), is separated from Flores by a very narrow strait. Gili Motong is a much smaller island to its south-east. Continue reading
1915: The Komodo dragon first formally protected, four years after its discovery to science;
1938: The islands of Padar and part of Rinca were first established as Nature Reserves;
1965: Extended when Komodo Island Nature Reserve was gazetted under Ministerial Decree # 66;
1977: Komodo recognised as an MAB Biosphere Reserve;
1980: The islands of Komodo, Padar, Rinca and Gili Motong and the surrounding waters were declared a 75,000 ha National Park (MOF,1990);
1984: Extended to 219,322 ha under Ministry of Forestry Decree 46/kpts/VI-Sek/ 1984 to include an expanded marine area and reserves on mainland Flores;
2005: Designated an ASEAN Heritage Park. Continue reading
These volcanic islands are inhabited by a population of over 3,000 giant lizards, whose appearance and aggressive behaviour have led to them being called ‘Komodo dragons’. They exist nowhere else in the world and are of great interest to scientists studying the theory of evolution. The rugged hillsides of dry savannah and pockets of thorny green vegetation contrast starkly with the brilliant white sandy beaches, mangrove swamps and the blue waters surging over coral reefs which are degraded but remain diverse. Continue reading
Komodo Island is an island located in the Nusa Tenggara Islands. Komodo Island is known as a habitat for native animals dragons. This island is also the Komodo National Park which is managed by the Central Government. Komodo Island in the eastern island of Sumbawa, which are separated by the Sape Strait.
Administratively, this island including the District of Komodo, West Manggarai regency, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Komodo Island is the most western tip of Nusa Tenggara Timur province, bordering the province of West Nusa Tenggara. Continue reading